// Books

  Allen, Terry. Ayyubid Architecture. Occidental, CA: Solipsist Press. http://www.sonic.net/~tallen/palmtree/ayyarch/ch2.htm#damas.bimnd.

  Bruant, Catherine, ed. Les cahiers de la recherche architecturale: Espaces et formes de l’Orient arabe. Paris: le ministère de l’Urbanisme et du Logement direction de l’Architecture, 1982.

  Burns, Ross. Damascus: A History. London and New York: Routledge, 2005.

  Burns, Ross. The Monuments of Syria. London: I.B. Tauris, 2009.

  Degeorge, Gérard. Damascus. Paris: Flammarion, 2004.

  Écochard, Michel and Claude Le Cœur. Les bains de Damas. Beirut: Institut Francais de Damas, 1942.

  Hillenbrand, Robert. Islamic Architecture: Form, Function and Meaning. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.

  Hillenbrand, Robert. Islamic Art and Architecture. London: Thames and Hudson, 1999.

  Lapidus, Ira M. Muslim Cities in the Later Middle Ages. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

  Michell, George, ed. Architecture of the Islamic World: its History and Social Meaning. London: Thames and Hudson, 1978.

  Necipoğlu, Gülru. The Age of Sinan: Architectural Culture in the Ottoman Empire. London: Reaktion Books, 2005.

  Petersen, Andrew. Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. London and New York: Routledge, 1996.

  Rabbat, Nasser. Mamluk History Through Architecture: Monuments, Culture and Politics in Medieval Egypt and Syria. London: I.B. Tauris, 2010.

  Raymond, André. The Great Arab Cities in the 16th–18th Centuries: An Introduction. New York and London, NYU Press, 1984.

  Riesner, Rainer. Paul’s Early Period: Chronology, Mission Strategy, Theology. Translated by Doug Stott. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1998.

  Sauvaget, Jean. Les monuments historiques de Damas. Beirut: Presses de l’Ifpo. http://books.openedition.org/ifpo/3611.

  Sauvaget, Jean and Michel Écochard. Les monuments ayyoubides de Damas. Damascus: Presses de l’Ifpo, 1950. http://books.openedition.org/ifpo/3787.

  Schilcher, Linda Schatkowski. Families in Politics: Damascene Factions and Estates of the 18th and 19th Centuries. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden GmbH, 1985.

  Weber, Stefan. “The Transformation of an Arab-Ottoman Institution: The Suq (Bazar) of Damascus from the 16th to the 20th Century.” In The International Congress on 700 Years of Ottoman Architecture/A

      Supra-National Heritage,
Istanbul, 1999, 244–253. Istanbul: Yapi-Endustri Merkezi Publications.

  Ziadeh, Nicola A. Damascus Under the Mamluks. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964.

// Articles

  Albarran Iruela, Javier. “’He was a Muslim knight who fought for religion, not for the world.’ War and Religiosity in Islam: a Comparative Study between the Islamic East and West (Twelfth Century).” Al-

27.3 (2015): 191–206.

  “Azem Palace Project Brief.” Compiled by the Aga Khan Award for Architecture. Geneva: Aga Khan Award for Architecture, 2013. https://archnet.org/sites/337/publications/8550

  Daskalakis, Annie-Christine. “Damascus 18th and 19th century houses in the Ablaq-‘Ajami style of decoration: local and international significance.” PhD diss., Institute of Fine Arts, NYU, 2004.

  Écochard, Michel. “Le Palais Azem de Damas.” Le Gazette des Beaux-Arts: courrieur européen de l’art et de la curiosité (1934/1935): 230–241.

  Flood, F.B. “Umayyad Survivals and Mamluk Revivals: Qalawunid Architecture and the Great Mosque of Damascus.” Muqarnas 14 (1997): 57–79.

  Hakky, Raffee. “The Ottoman Külliye Between the 14th and 17th Centures: Its Urban Setting and Spatial Composition.” PhD diss., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1992.

  Hakky, Raffee. “The Tekkiye Süleymaniye in Damascus: Its Setting and Spatial Qualities.” METU: Journal of the Faculty of Architecture 15. 1–2 (Jan. 1995): 37–51.

  Ibrahim, Mahmood. “Practice and Reform in Fourteenth Century Damascene Madrasahs.” Mamluk Studies Review 11.1 (2007): 69–83.

  Kafescioğlu, Çiğdem. “’In the Image of Rum’: Ottoman Architectural Patronage in Sixteenth-Century Aleppo and Damascus.” Muqarnas 16 (1999): 70–96.

  Lev, Yaacov. “The Social and Economic Policies of Nur al-Din (1146–1174).” Der Islam 81.2 (July 2004): 218–242.

  de Lorey, Eustache. “L’état actuel du Palais Azem.” Syria 6.4 (1925): 367-72.

  Masters, Bruce. “The view from the province: Syrian chronicles of the eighteenth century.” The Journal of the American Oriental Society 114.3 (July–September 1994): 353–362.

  Muret, Maurice. “Saint Paul à Damas.” Revue Archéologique cinquième série, T. 16 (juillet-décembre 1922): 185-186.

  “Restoration of Khan Assad Pasha Project Brief.” Compiled by the Aga Khan Award for Architecture. Geneva: Aga Khan Award for Architecture, 2013. https://archnet.org/sites/467/publications/856.

  Scharrahs, Anke. “Insight into a sophisticated painting technique: three polychrome wooden interiors from Ottoman Syria in German collections and field research in Damascus.” Studies in Conservation

      55, sup. 2 (Jan. 2010): 134–139.

  Shamir, Shimon. “As‘ad Pasha Al-‘Azm and Ottoman Rule in Damascus (1743–1752).” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 26.1 (Feb. 1963): 1–28.

  Tabbaa, Yasser. “The Architectural Patronage of Nur al-Din (1146-1174).” PhD. diss., New York University, 1982.

  Tabbaa, Yasser. “The Muqarnas Dome: Its Origin and Meaning.” Muqarnas 3 (1985), 61–77.

// Websites

  Archnet. https://archnet.org/.

  Museum With No Frontiers. http://www.museumwnf.org/.

// Images

  Abdulac, Samir.


  Demeter, Daniel. www.syriaphotoguide.com.

  Directorate General of Museums and Antiquities, Syria (DGAM)

  Gómez, Rafael. http://micamara.es.

  Kocman, Allesandra. 'Azm Palace stone detail. https://www.flickr.com/photos/akocman/4595783121/. (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

  Kocman, Allesandra. 'Azm Palace lantern. https://www.flickr.com/photos/akocman/4596404434/. (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

  Kocman, Allesandra. 'Azm Palace wall detail. https://www.flickr.com/photos/akocman/4598818493/. (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

  Library of Congress. House of Ananias courtyard. https://www.loc.gov/item/mpc2004007484/PP/.

  Nieuwendijk, Stijn. Tekkiye Süleymaniye ablution pool and mosque. https://www.flickr.com/photos/stijnnieuwendijk/4640455194/. (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

  Osseman, Dick. http://members.chello.nl/dosseman/default.htm.